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Subject: Re: [emix] defining terms -- microgrid

I'd certainly vote for that.

How does http://der.lbl.gov/ relate to
http://certs.lbl.gov/certs-der.html or
The second link has Chris's name at bottom.

I'll add this to our list:
"A microgrid is a localized grouping of electricity sources and loads 
that normally operates connected to and synchronous with the traditional 
centralized grid (macrogrid), but can disconnect and function 
autonomously as physical and/or economic conditions dictate. "


Girish Ghatikar wrote:
> In addition to the link David Holmberg sent earlier, please see the 
> following link for more information on Microgrids --
> http://der.lbl.gov/
> If the TC is interested, I can consider checking with LBNL Micro Grids 
> expert, Chris Marnay, for a presentation at TC meeting.
> Thanks,
> Rish
> Holmberg, David wrote:
>> I don’t think I agree with any of the “interesting additions”, except 
>> that every microgrid should have some storage to allow meeting 
>> typical demand requirements. I’m not sure what “driven by DER” means. 
>> Certainly there has to be some DER. The definition and value of high 
>> reliability is in the eyes of the beholder.
>> David
>> *From:* Anne Hendry [mailto:ahendry@pacbell.net]
>> *Sent:* Friday, March 19, 2010 2:59 PM
>> *To:* emix@lists.oasis-open.org
>> *Subject:* Re: [emix] defining terms -- microgrid
>> Yes, the primary recurring attributes seem to be:
>> - can operate independently from grid or in parallel
>> - can seamlessly move from one mode to the other
>> - independently controlled at the local level, no need for central 
>> control
>> - driven by DER, co-locates generation and load
>> - highly reliable
>> Interesting additional notes from the survey presentation at the same 
>> site are the 'points of varying agreement'
>> - generation capacity must be < 1 KW
>> - must contain > 1 generation source
>> - must connect to the grid at a single point
>> - must contain storage (batteries, etc)
>> - must be able to meet full load requirement
>> -A
>> Holmberg, David wrote:
>> They all agree as far as I can tell. I like the 
>> http://www.electricdistribution.ctc.com/microgrids.htm, along with 
>> the EI idea of hierarchy put together.
>> David
>> *From:* Anne Hendry [mailto:ahendry@pacbell.net]
>> *Sent:* Friday, March 19, 2010 2:49 AM
>> *To:* emix@lists.oasis-open.org <mailto:emix@lists.oasis-open.org>
>> *Subject:* [emix] defining terms -- microgrid
>> We've been using the term microgrid (among others) frequently and 
>> today it came up again but with the thought it might also be 
>> applicable to subsystems within the 'macrogrid'. At the same time, in 
>> the Dutch 'microgrid' paper, they use the term Virtual Power Plant 
>> (not so much a microgrid, but more of a role a microgrid may assume). 
>> 'Microgrid' is used and defined differently by different entities and 
>> the definition is evolving, as are most in this space, and new terms 
>> are devleoping. Perhaps it would be helpful to start a glossary for 
>> terms like these we may use in the spec so everyone understands the 
>> definition as they are used by EMIX? The defining process may have 
>> the added value of generating more clearly articulated scope and 
>> price communication requirements.
>> For instance, below are several different defs/characteristics for 
>> microgrid I've run across recently. Each specs a different set of 
>> characteristics from which we could generate an amalgam of those (and 
>> any from other sources) characteristics most relevant to EMIX and 
>> perhaps then define some use cases using these characteristics to 
>> drive element declarations/definitions?
>> Just throwing this out, as an example, to start gathering glossary 
>> terms.
>> -A
>> EI spec:
>> "Small, local versions of the bulk power grid that optimize the local 
>> distribution system and may include local generation and storage. A 
>> microgrid may contain smaller microgrids and may be part of a larger 
>> microgrid; communication interface at the edge of each microgrid is 
>> the same."
>> http://eetd.lbl.gov/CERTS/pdf/mg-pesc04.pdf
>> Subsystem of generation and associated loads that can separate from 
>> the distribution system to isolate from disturbances without harming 
>> the transmission grid's integrity and providing higher local 
>> reliability by islanding generation and load together. Allows for 
>> local control of distributed generation, eliminating the need for 
>> central dispatch.
>> /
>> /From NAESB report to NIST
>> http://www.naesb.org/pdf4/interimsmartgridroadmapnistrestructure.pdf
>> "electric island"
>> >From http://www.electricdistribution.ctc.com/microgrids.htm
>> A microgrid, a local energy network, offers integration of DER with 
>> local electric loads, which can operate in parallel with the grid or 
>> in an intentional island mode to provide a customized level of high 
>> reliability and resilience to grid disturbances. This advanced, 
>> integrated distribution system addresses the need for application in 
>> locations with electric supply and/or delivery constraints, in remote 
>> sites, and for protection of critical loads and economically 
>> sensitive development. By operating microgrid in the islanding mode, 
>> critical loads can continue to operate, impervious to grid 
>> disturbance events.
>> http://certs.lbl.gov/certs-der-micro.html
>> CERTS Microgrid:
>> A key feature of a microgrid, is its ability, during a utility grid 
>> disturbance, to separate and isolate itself from the utility 
>> seamlessly with little or no disruption to the loads within the 
>> microgrid (e.g., in the CERTS Microgrid concept, no impacts on power 
>> quality). Then, when the utility grid returns to normal, the 
>> microgrid automatically resynchronizes and reconnects itself to the 
>> grid, in an equally seamless fashion. A critical feature of the CERTS 
>> Microgrid is its presentation to the surrounding distribution grid as 
>> a single self-controlled entity. A CERTS Microgrid appears to the 
>> grid as indistinguishable from other customer sites that do not 
>> include DER. This presentation means that the microgrid avoids many 
>> of the current concerns associated with integrating DER, such as how 
>> many DER the system can tolerate before their collective electrical 
>> impact begins to create problems like excessive current flows into 
>> faults and voltage fluctuations. The peer-to-peer concept insures 
>> that no single component, such as a master controller or a central 
>> storage unit, is required for operation of the microgrid. Therefore, 
>> by its very design, the CERTS Microgrid can continue operating with 
>> loss of an individual component or generator.
>> >From http://www.electricdistribution.ctc.com/microgrids.htm
>> http://www.electricdistribution.ctc.com/pdfs/Microgrid_Assessment_Phase_1.pdf 
>> : (slide 4, also more detail at slides 9-11)
>> No clear definition, but characteristics include ability to operate 
>> 'islanded' or 'grid parallel', and to switch seamlessly between these 
>> two modes, and to include significant DER capacity; driven by DER 
>> technology rather than by energy service requirements.
>> http://green.venturebeat.com/2009/10/29/microgrids-a-21b-market-in-the-making/ 
>> Smaller-scale electrical systems spanning college campuses, 
>> municipalities and business parks, where energy is generated, stored 
>> and very closely managed on an intensely local level. Without being 
>> hooked into one of the larger national grids, there are less likely 
>> to be disruptions due to peak demand or excessive power loads. Easier 
>> to do DR. Can store enough energy to keep power flowing during 
>> blackouts or other disruptions. This makes them ideal for emergency 
>> services, hospitals, and of course, the military.

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