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Subject: Re: [emix] defining terms -- microgrid


They're both related and these activities are jointly by Chris Marnay 
and Joe Eto of LBNL. I just sent one link as that was more relevant.


Anne Hendry wrote:
> I'd certainly vote for that.
> How does http://der.lbl.gov/ relate to
> http://certs.lbl.gov/certs-der.html or
> http://certs.lbl.gov/certs-der-micro.html?
> The second link has Chris's name at bottom.
> I'll add this to our list:
> "A microgrid is a localized grouping of electricity sources and loads 
> that normally operates connected to and synchronous with the 
> traditional centralized grid (macrogrid), but can disconnect and 
> function autonomously as physical and/or economic conditions dictate. "
> Thanks,
> -A
> Girish Ghatikar wrote:
>> In addition to the link David Holmberg sent earlier, please see the 
>> following link for more information on Microgrids --
>> http://der.lbl.gov/
>> If the TC is interested, I can consider checking with LBNL Micro 
>> Grids expert, Chris Marnay, for a presentation at TC meeting.
>> Thanks,
>> Rish
>> Holmberg, David wrote:
>>> I don’t think I agree with any of the “interesting additions”, 
>>> except that every microgrid should have some storage to allow 
>>> meeting typical demand requirements. I’m not sure what “driven by 
>>> DER” means. Certainly there has to be some DER. The definition and 
>>> value of high reliability is in the eyes of the beholder.
>>> David
>>> *From:* Anne Hendry [mailto:ahendry@pacbell.net]
>>> *Sent:* Friday, March 19, 2010 2:59 PM
>>> *To:* emix@lists.oasis-open.org
>>> *Subject:* Re: [emix] defining terms -- microgrid
>>> Yes, the primary recurring attributes seem to be:
>>> - can operate independently from grid or in parallel
>>> - can seamlessly move from one mode to the other
>>> - independently controlled at the local level, no need for central 
>>> control
>>> - driven by DER, co-locates generation and load
>>> - highly reliable
>>> Interesting additional notes from the survey presentation at the 
>>> same site are the 'points of varying agreement'
>>> - generation capacity must be < 1 KW
>>> - must contain > 1 generation source
>>> - must connect to the grid at a single point
>>> - must contain storage (batteries, etc)
>>> - must be able to meet full load requirement
>>> -A
>>> Holmberg, David wrote:
>>> They all agree as far as I can tell. I like the 
>>> http://www.electricdistribution.ctc.com/microgrids.htm, along with 
>>> the EI idea of hierarchy put together.
>>> David
>>> *From:* Anne Hendry [mailto:ahendry@pacbell.net]
>>> *Sent:* Friday, March 19, 2010 2:49 AM
>>> *To:* emix@lists.oasis-open.org <mailto:emix@lists.oasis-open.org>
>>> *Subject:* [emix] defining terms -- microgrid
>>> We've been using the term microgrid (among others) frequently and 
>>> today it came up again but with the thought it might also be 
>>> applicable to subsystems within the 'macrogrid'. At the same time, 
>>> in the Dutch 'microgrid' paper, they use the term Virtual Power 
>>> Plant (not so much a microgrid, but more of a role a microgrid may 
>>> assume). 'Microgrid' is used and defined differently by different 
>>> entities and the definition is evolving, as are most in this space, 
>>> and new terms are devleoping. Perhaps it would be helpful to start a 
>>> glossary for terms like these we may use in the spec so everyone 
>>> understands the definition as they are used by EMIX? The defining 
>>> process may have the added value of generating more clearly 
>>> articulated scope and price communication requirements.
>>> For instance, below are several different defs/characteristics for 
>>> microgrid I've run across recently. Each specs a different set of 
>>> characteristics from which we could generate an amalgam of those 
>>> (and any from other sources) characteristics most relevant to EMIX 
>>> and perhaps then define some use cases using these characteristics 
>>> to drive element declarations/definitions?
>>> Just throwing this out, as an example, to start gathering glossary 
>>> terms.
>>> -A
>>> EI spec:
>>> "Small, local versions of the bulk power grid that optimize the 
>>> local distribution system and may include local generation and 
>>> storage. A microgrid may contain smaller microgrids and may be part 
>>> of a larger microgrid; communication interface at the edge of each 
>>> microgrid is the same."
>>> http://eetd.lbl.gov/CERTS/pdf/mg-pesc04.pdf
>>> Subsystem of generation and associated loads that can separate from 
>>> the distribution system to isolate from disturbances without harming 
>>> the transmission grid's integrity and providing higher local 
>>> reliability by islanding generation and load together. Allows for 
>>> local control of distributed generation, eliminating the need for 
>>> central dispatch.
>>> /
>>> /From NAESB report to NIST
>>> http://www.naesb.org/pdf4/interimsmartgridroadmapnistrestructure.pdf
>>> "electric island"
>>> >From http://www.electricdistribution.ctc.com/microgrids.htm
>>> A microgrid, a local energy network, offers integration of DER with 
>>> local electric loads, which can operate in parallel with the grid or 
>>> in an intentional island mode to provide a customized level of high 
>>> reliability and resilience to grid disturbances. This advanced, 
>>> integrated distribution system addresses the need for application in 
>>> locations with electric supply and/or delivery constraints, in 
>>> remote sites, and for protection of critical loads and economically 
>>> sensitive development. By operating microgrid in the islanding mode, 
>>> critical loads can continue to operate, impervious to grid 
>>> disturbance events.
>>> http://certs.lbl.gov/certs-der-micro.html
>>> CERTS Microgrid:
>>> A key feature of a microgrid, is its ability, during a utility grid 
>>> disturbance, to separate and isolate itself from the utility 
>>> seamlessly with little or no disruption to the loads within the 
>>> microgrid (e.g., in the CERTS Microgrid concept, no impacts on power 
>>> quality). Then, when the utility grid returns to normal, the 
>>> microgrid automatically resynchronizes and reconnects itself to the 
>>> grid, in an equally seamless fashion. A critical feature of the 
>>> CERTS Microgrid is its presentation to the surrounding distribution 
>>> grid as a single self-controlled entity. A CERTS Microgrid appears 
>>> to the grid as indistinguishable from other customer sites that do 
>>> not include DER. This presentation means that the microgrid avoids 
>>> many of the current concerns associated with integrating DER, such 
>>> as how many DER the system can tolerate before their collective 
>>> electrical impact begins to create problems like excessive current 
>>> flows into faults and voltage fluctuations. The peer-to-peer concept 
>>> insures that no single component, such as a master controller or a 
>>> central storage unit, is required for operation of the microgrid. 
>>> Therefore, by its very design, the CERTS Microgrid can continue 
>>> operating with loss of an individual component or generator.
>>> >From http://www.electricdistribution.ctc.com/microgrids.htm
>>> http://www.electricdistribution.ctc.com/pdfs/Microgrid_Assessment_Phase_1.pdf 
>>> : (slide 4, also more detail at slides 9-11)
>>> No clear definition, but characteristics include ability to operate 
>>> 'islanded' or 'grid parallel', and to switch seamlessly between 
>>> these two modes, and to include significant DER capacity; driven by 
>>> DER technology rather than by energy service requirements.
>>> http://green.venturebeat.com/2009/10/29/microgrids-a-21b-market-in-the-making/ 
>>> Smaller-scale electrical systems spanning college campuses, 
>>> municipalities and business parks, where energy is generated, stored 
>>> and very closely managed on an intensely local level. Without being 
>>> hooked into one of the larger national grids, there are less likely 
>>> to be disruptions due to peak demand or excessive power loads. 
>>> Easier to do DR. Can store enough energy to keep power flowing 
>>> during blackouts or other disruptions. This makes them ideal for 
>>> emergency services, hospitals, and of course, the military.

Rish Ghatikar
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
1 Cyclotron Road, MS: 90-3111, Berkeley, CA 94720
GGhatikar@lbl.gov | +1 510.486.6768 | +1 510.486.4089 [fax]

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